Lidocaine Hydrochloride , Lidocaine HCl Local Anesthetic APIS Relieve Pain
What is Lidocaine Hydrochloride?
In its basic form, lidocaine hydrochloride is a white powder without smell and with a bitter taste that is used both in human and veterinary medicine. The drug is also known as lignocaine hydrochloride, and is used as a local anesthetic and to regulate certain medical problems related to heart rhythm. Injections of it are used to provide local anesthesia during various minor surgical procedures. It is also available in various topical preparations, such as gels, sprays, creams, and ointments that are usually applied to the skin or the mucous membranes. This drug was first manufactured in Sweden in 1943 and was then named xylocaine.
When used for anesthetic purposes, lidocaine hydrochloride works by blocking certain functions of the nervous system, inhibiting the transmission of pain impulses from the treated area to the brain. It is a fast-acting form of local anesthesia that often starts to work within five minutes. The effects wear off in a relatively short time, often a couple of hours, because the drug is quickly metabolized by the liver.
Gels, creams, and other topical treatments containing this compound are available without a prescription and can be used to relieve various kinds of itching, skin irritation, and pain. For example, lidocaine creams can be used to treat burns, sunburns, shingles, and jellyfish stings. It can also be used to relieve the pain of urethritis, a urinary tract inflammation. In hospitals, lidocaine jelly is used when a patient is intubated through the mouth or nose to numb the affected area when the tube is inserted.
This drug is also available in liquid form and is then often injected. An injection can be used to provide local anesthesia during minor surgical procedures like eye surgery, dental surgery, and throat surgery. It is also used to treat certain forms of heart arrhythmia, meaning conditions where the heartbeat is irregular because the chambers of the heart are not functioning properly. Lidocaine hydrochloride injections are only available by prescription and under medical supervision, as in a hospital, doctor's office, or medical clinic.
This compound has few side effects when used as a topical treatment, but they are more common when the drug is injected, and occur most often in the case of overdose. Possible side effects include itching, rash, breathing problems, nausea, and slow heartbeat. People over the age of 65 and those with various medical issues, such as kidney or liver problems, are more susceptible to a
dverse side effects from lidocaine injections.
Special warnings and precautions for use
Lidocaine should only be used by people with skills in resuscitation.
Facilities and equipment for resuscitation should be available when administering local anaesthetics.
As with other local anaesthetics, lidocaine should be used with caution in patients with epilepsy, myasthenia gravis, congestive cardiac failure, bradycardia or respiratory depression, including where agents are known to interact with Lidocaine either to increase its availability or additive effects e.g. phenytoin or prolong its elimination e.g. hepatic or end renal insufficiency where the metabolites of Lidocaine may accumulate.
The effect of local anaesthetics may be reduced if the injection is made into an inflamed or infected area.
Intramuscular Lidocaine may increase creatinine phosphokinase concentrations which can interfere with the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Lidocaine has been shown to be porphyrinogenic in animals and should be avoided in persons suffering from porphyria.
Hypokalaemia, hypoxia and disorder of acid-base balance should be corrected before treatment with intravenous lidocaine begins.
Certain local anaesthetic procedures may be associated with serious adverse reactions, regardless of local anaesthetic drug used.
Central nerve blocks may cause cardiovascular depression, especially in the presence of hypovolaemia, and therefore epidural anaesthesia should be used with caution in patients with impaired cardiovascular function.
Epidural anaesthesia may lead to hypotension and bradycardia. This risk can be reduced by preloading the circulation with crystalloidal or colloidal solutions. Hypotension should be treated promptly.
Paracervical block can sometimes cause foetal bradycardia or tachycardia and careful monitoring of foetal heart rate is necessary (see section 4.6).
Injections in the head and neck region may be made inadvertently into an artery causing cerebral symptoms even at low doses.
Retrobulbar injections may rarely reach the cranial subarachnoid space, causing serious/severe reactions including cardiovascular collapse, apnoea, convulsions and temporary blindness.
Retro- and peribulbar injections of local anaesthetics carry a low risk of persistent ocular motor dysfunction. The primary causes include trauma and/or local toxic effects on muscles and/or nerves.
The severity of such tissue reactions is related to the degree of trauma, the concentration of the local anaesthetic and the duration of exposure of the tissue to local anaesthetic. For this reason, as with all local anaesthetic, the lowest effective concentration and dose of local anaesthetic should be used.
Lidocaine Injection is not recommended for use in neonates. The optimum serum concentration of lidocaine required to avoid toxicity, such as convulsions and cardiac arrhythmias, in this age group is not known.
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